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    1. Here are some of your common SSH commands which you will need to use if you have a server and setting up things through SSH.

      Common SSH Commands or Linux Shell Commands

      ls  : list files/directories in a directory, comparable to dir in windows/dos.
      ls -al  : shows all files (including ones that start with a period), directories, and details attributes for each file.
      cd  : change directory 
      cd /usr/local/apache  : go to /usr/local/apache/ directory
      cd ~  : go to your home directory
      cd -  : go to the last directory you were in
      cd ..  : go up a directory
      cat : print file contents to the screen
      cat filename.txt : cat the contents of filename.txt to your screen
      tail : like cat, but only reads the end of the file
      tail /var/log/messages : see the last 20 (by default) lines of /var/log/messages
      tail -f /var/log/messages : watch the file continuously, while it's being updated
      tail -200 /var/log/messages : print the last 200 lines of the file to the screen
      more : like cat, but opens the file one screen at a time rather than all at once
      more /etc/userdomains : browse through the userdomains file.
       hit Space to go to the next page, q to quit
      pico : friendly, easy to use file editor
      pico /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user's website.
      vi : another editor, tons of features
      vi /home/burst/public_html/index.html : edit the index page for the user's website.
      grep : looks for patterns in files
      grep root /etc/passwd : shows all matches of root in /etc/passwd
      grep -v root /etc/passwd : shows all lines that do not match root
      touch : create an empty file
      touch /home/burst/public_html/404.html : create an empty file called 404.html in the directory /home/burst/public_html/
      ln : create's "links" between files and directories
      ln -s /home/username/tmp/webalizer webstats : Now you can display http://www.yourdomain.com/webstats to show your webalizer stats online. You can delete the symlink (webstats) and it will not delete the original stats on the server.
      rm : delete a file
      rm filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will more than likely ask if you really want to delete it
      rm -f filename.txt : deletes filename.txt, will not ask for confirmation before deleting.
      rm -rf tmp/ : recursively deletes the directory tmp, and all files in it, including subdirectories.
      Be extremely careful with using rm. If used improperly you can end up deleting important content that can never be recovered without a restore.
      last : shows who logged in and when
      last -20 : shows only the last 20 logins
      last -20 -a : shows last 20 logins, with the hostname in the last field
      w : shows who is currently logged in and where they are logged in from.
      netstat : shows all current network connections.
      netstat -an : shows all connections to the server, the source and destination ips and ports.
      netstat -rn : shows routing table for all ips bound to the server.
      top : shows live system processes in a nice table, memory information, uptime and other useful info.
       This is excellent for managing your system processes, resources and ensure everything is working fine and your server isn't bogged down.
       Shift + M to sort by memory usage
       Shift + P to sort by CPU usage
      ps : ps is short for process status, which is similar to the top command. It's used to show currently running processes and their PID.
       A process ID is a unique number that identifies a process, with that you can kill or terminate a running program on your server (see kill command).
      ps U username : shows processes for a certain user
      ps aux : shows all system processes
      ps aux --forest : shows all system processes like the above but organizes in a hierarchy that's very useful!
      file : attempts to guess what type of file a file is by looking at it's content.
      file * : prints out a list of all files/directories in a directory
      du : shows disk usage.
      du -sh : shows a summary, in human-readble form, of total disk space used in the current directory, including subdirectories.
      du -sh * : same thing, but for each file and directory. helpful when finding large files taking up space.
      wc : word count
      wc -l filename.txt : tells how many lines are in filename.txt
      cp : copy a file
      cp filename filename.backup : copies filename to filename.backup
      cp -a /home/burst/new_design/* /home/burst/public_html/ : copies all files, retaining permissions form one directory to another.
      find * -type d|xargs -i cp --verbose php.ini {} : copies your php.ini file into all directories recursively.
      kill : terminate a system process
      kill -9 PID EG : kill -9 431
      kill PID EG : kill 10550
       Use top or ps ux to get system PIDs (Process IDs)
       10550 pts/3 0:01 /bin/csh
       10574 pts/4 0:02 /bin/csh
       10590 pts/4 0:09 APP
      Each line represents one process, with a process being loosely defined as a running instance of a program. The column headed PID (process ID) shows the assigned process numbers of the processes. The heading COMMAND shows the location of the executed process.
      Putting commands together

      Often you will find you need to use different commands on the same line. Here are some examples. Note that the | character is called a pipe, it takes date from one program and pipes it to another.
       > means create a new file, overwriting any content already there.
       >> means tp append data to a file, creating a newone if it doesn not already exist.
       < send input from a file back into a command.
      grep User /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf | more
       This will dump all lines that match User from the httpd.conf, then print the results to your screen one page at a time.
      last -a > /root/lastlogins.tmp
       This will print all the current login history to a file called lastlogins.tmp in /root/
      tail -10000 /var/log/exim_mainlog | grep domain.com | more
       This will grab the last 10,000 lines from /var/log/exim_mainlog, find all occurances of domain.com 
      (the period represents 'anything', comment it out with a so it will be interpretted literally), then send it to your screen page by page.
      netstat -an | grep :80 | wc -l
      Show how many active connections there are to apache (httpd runs on port 80)
      mysqladmin processlist | wc -l
       Show how many current open connections there are to mysql
      mysqldump -u username -p dbname > file.sql
       MySQL Dump
      mysql -u username -p database_name <file.sql
       Importing MySQL database
      tar -zxvf file.tar.gz
      UnTAR file
      which [perl]
       Finding path to [perl]

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